Software Services, Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the process of planning, implementing and controlling the operations of the supply chain as efficiently as possible. Supply Chain Management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption.

Supply Chain Management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing, procurement, conversion, and logistics management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In essence, Supply Chain Management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies. More recently, the loosely coupled, self-organizing network of businesses that cooperates to provide product and service offerings has been called the Extended Enterprise.

Some experts distinguish Supply Chain Management and logistics, while others consider the terms to be interchangeable. Supply Chain Management can also refer to Supply chain management software which are tools or modules used in executing supply chain transactions, managing supplier relationships and controlling associated business processes. Supply chain event management (abbreviated as SCEM) is a consideration of all possible occurring events and factors that can cause a disruption in a supply chain. With SCEM possible scenarios can be created and solutions can be planned.

A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished products to customers. Supply chains exist in both service and manufacturing organizations, although the complexity of the chain may vary greatly from industry to industry and firm to firm.

Supply chain management is typically viewed to lie between fully vertically integrated firms, where the entire material flow is owned by a single firm and those where each channel member operates independently. Therefore coordination between the various players in the chain is key in its effective management. Cooper and Ellram compare supply chain management to a well-balanced and well-practiced relay team. Such a team is more competitive when each player knows how to be positioned for the hand-off. The relationships are the strongest between players who directly pass the baton, but the entire team needs to make a coordinated effort to win the race.


Supply chain management must address the following problems:

  • Distribution Network Configuration: Number, location and network missions of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, cross-docks and customers.
  • Distribution Strategy: Including questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared); delivery scheme (e.g., direct shipment, pool point shipping, Cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping); mode of transportation (e.g., motor carrier, including truckload, LTL, parcel; railroad; intermodal, including TOFC and COFC; ocean freight; airfreight); replenishment strategy (e.g., pull, push or hybrid); and transportation control (e.g., owner-operated, private carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL).
  • Information: Integration of and other processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, and potential collaboration etc.
  • Inventory Management: Quantity and location of inventory including raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods.
  • Cash-Flow: Arranging the payment terms and the methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain.
  • Supply chain execution is managing and coordinating the movement of materials, information and funds across the supply chain. The flow is bi-directional.


Supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and then the movement of finished goods out of the organization toward the end-consumer. As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible, they have reduced their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other entities that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively. The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer demand, while reducing management control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply chain partners led to the creation of supply chain management concepts. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory visibility and improving inventory velocity.

Several models have been proposed for understanding the activities required to manage material movements across organizational and functional boundaries. SCOR is a supply chain management model promoted by the Supply Chain Management Council. Another model is the SCM Model proposed by the Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF). Supply chain activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational levels of activities.


  • Strategic network optimization, including the number, location, and size of warehouses, distribution centers and facilities.
  • Strategic partnership with suppliers, distributors, and customers, creating communication channels for critical information and operational improvements such as cross docking, direct shipping, and third-party logistics.
  • Product design coordination, so that new and existing products can be optimally integrated into the supply chain, load management
  • Information Technology infrastructure, to support supply chain operations.
  • Where-to-make and what-to-make-or-buy decisions
  • Aligning overall organizational strategy with supply strategy.


  • Sourcing contracts and other purchasing decisions.
  • Production decisions, including contracting, locations, scheduling, and planning process definition.
  • Inventory decisions, including quantity, location, and quality of inventory.
  • Transportation strategy, including frequency, routes, and contracting.
  • Benchmarking of all operations against competitors and implementation of best practices throughout the enterprise.
  • Milestone payments


  • Daily production and distribution planning, including all nodes in the supply chain.
  • Production scheduling for each manufacturing facility in the supply chain (minute by minute).
  • Demand planning and forecasting, coordinating the demand forecast of all customers and sharing the forecast with all suppliers.
  • Sourcing planning, including current inventory and forecast demand, in collaboration with all suppliers.
  • Inbound operations, including transportation from suppliers and receiving inventory.
  • Production operations, including the consumption of materials and flow of finished goods.
  • Outbound operations, including all fulfillment activities and transportation to customers.
  • Order promising, accounting for all constraints in the supply chain, including all suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, and other customers.
Rich Internet Applications

Reasons to Love Flex

Flex was designed in order to give Flash Developers an edge when developing Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). Although RIAs can be built from within Flash, there are various limitations, especially when it comes to a developer’s time.
One of the major reasons why Flex is becoming more and more popular is because it utilizes ActionScript 3.0. One important thing to note is that the Flex environment does not use a Timeline. This does not mean that it is limited. Rather, Flex has been developed more for programmers and less for designers.

Let’s take a look at the reasons to love to develop RIAs (Rich Internet Applications) in Flex.

  1. Flash is everywhere — The Adobe Flash 9 Player has about 98% market penetration across browsers. This means that when you launch an application on the Web, you are virtually guaranteed that anyone will be able to use it. Compared to the distribution statistics of other RIA runtimes, there is simply no contest.
    Flash is cross-OS, or “platform-agnostic”: it runs in Windows, Mac and Linux. It is also installed in every type of browser, making it the only RIA technology that can truly claim to be a “write once, run everywhere” platform.
  2. Flex = Flash on steroids — Flex is Flash and Flash is ActionScript 3.0 (or more specifically, Flex runs on the Flash Player, and the Flash Player’s language is ActionScript 3.0.)
    In ActionScript 3.0 you have all the aspects of a mature, robust programming language: strong runtime typing, class inheritance, interfaces, error handling, a built-in event model, sealed classes, method closures, custom namespace accessors, regular expressions, E4X. The Flash Player incorporates the Tamarin ActionScript 3.0 Virtual Machine with the power of a Just in Time (JIT) compiler, which interprets SWF application bytecode into machine-level instructions so that your code runs as fast as the processor can handle. Warp speed, Scotty!
    And since Flex is built on top of Flash, you have the full power of the Flash APIs to draw in real time with lines, gradients and fills and manipulate and animate vectors, bitmap data, and visual assets, complete with matrix transformations, programmatic Photoshop-like filters, and blends. Flash allows communication using a dizzying array of data formats, but if you don’t find the format that suits your needs, create your own using a binary socket and custom interpreter! You also get high-definition, full-screen, hardware-accelerated video capabilities, supported by enterprise-capable video encoding and streaming server products.
    Flex 3 adds another layer of power onto the Flash runtime: a visual markup language called MXML, and a full-featured compiler that includes compiler metadata and data binding. The Flex framework adds class libraries for natively managing HTTP requests, RPC services, and Web Services, a dizzying array of visual UI components, a deep linking framework for browser integration, an API for AIR applications that can interact natively with the desktop, logging and unit testing frameworks, and much much more, all of which will be covered in this book. Not to mention an IDE based on Eclipse, and a whole suite of server tools for your application to communicate with the backend using native ActionScript class objects.
  3. Flex is open source — The Flex Software Development Kit (SDK), which comprises the compiler, the component framework, and several other tools, is a free, open-source development platform. Although Flex Builder is neither free nor open source, it is built upon Eclipse, and can be installed standalone (with Eclipse built in) or as an Eclipse plug-in alongside other Eclipse development environments. In fact, Adobe Flex Builder has been voted Best Open Source Developer Tool for RIAs by InfoWorld’s Best of Open Source Software Awards.
  4. Interoperability — ActionScript 3 has XML baked into it as a native format with E4X parsing capability, facilitating JSON and XML data transfer. The Flash Player is able to interface directly with JavaScript in the browser through a native JavaScript communications API, and is able to recognize SWF filename query name-value pairs. Two great examples of Flash-AJAX interoperability are Google Finance and Yahoo! Maps Canada, both of which combine the versatility of an enhanced hypertext application with the interactive power of the Flash runtime.
    The Flash Player also includes XML and binary sockets capability, including traditional GET and POST HTTP requests.
    The Flash Player natively supports image file formats GIF, JPG, PNG, media file formats MP3, FLV, F4P, F4A, and F4V, including the AAC, MP4, M4V, M4A, 3GP, and MOV multimedia container formats, encoded in Sorenson Spark, On2VP6, H.264, MPEG-4, MP3, or AAC.
    The Flash Platform also enables some unique RIA communications protocols. Connected to the Flash Media Server, the Flash Player is also able to stream video and audio using the RTMP protocol, and its rights-encrypted cousin RTMPE, as well as the new RTMFP format in Flash 10. Using the Adobe AMF protocol, the Flash Player is able to communicate complex ActionScript objects directly with data services applications on the server. Adobe LiveCycle Data Services and its open-source cousin BlazeDS enable bidirectional ActionScript-to-Java object transfer, and the ColdFusion server allows for ActionScript-to-CFC object transfer. Third-party data service implementations such as WebOrb, AMFphp, and Zend enable native ActionScript object communication with the.NET and PHP server languages. Other third-party data services solutions exist for languages such as Ruby and Python.
    The Flex framework contains APIs that allow very easy deployment for HTTP requests, Web Services, and RPC services data transfers. So needless to say, a Flex application can communicate a wide variety of web technologies, allowing for a plethora of server integration options with an impressive array of interoperability with many data formats, languages, and protocols.
  5. The community — Conceived with the same spirit as the Flash community, the Flex community is passionate, generous, and vibrant, always coming up with new ways to alert each other of the latest quirks, share their discoveries, their tips, their components, and their experiments, helping Adobe make a better product. And Adobe does an incredible job of feeding that fire: it actually listens to the community, and rewards them with changes to product development that directly reflect what designers and developers has been asking for, going so far as to organize events and surveys that elicit feedback for the sole purpose of making Flash and Flex better and better. One has only to look at all the new features in Flash Player 10 and those planned for Flex 4 to know that Adobe has listened to and cares about its community. Many Flash and Flex designers and developers, including the writers of this book, really enjoy what they do for a living, and thrive on that energy. And this level of passion and commitment to each other and to the evolution of the platform shows through in every Flash and Flex conference, every technical blog, every community forum and list this author has ever visited.
  6. Creative Suite integration — When Adobe purchased Macromedia in 2005, it brought to the Flash and Flex development scene the possibility of the full force of its Creative Suite of applications. As of Creative Suite 3, we can now experience the fruits of that promise, as we now have seamless integration between Flash and Illustrator, Fireworks and After Effects. This opens up a vast sea of creative possibilities for Flex development, enabling even “richer media” applications than ever before. See Chapters 26 and 29, which cover Flash and Flex workflow integration in greater detail.
  7. Flex enables modular, rapid application development (RAD) — Flex natively encourages a Model-View-Controller (MVC) separation of application parts through the use of MXML, which is an XML-based visual layout markup language that facilitates rapid prototyping and development (see Listing 1-1 for details). In the simplest Flex MVC pattern, the View or interface layout is typically coded in CSS and MXML, and the Controller or application logic is typically coded in ActionScript, though one is not constrained to these norms. This will be covered in greater detail in Chapter 60, “MVC Frameworks.” Flex Builder also has a Design View, which allows for the visualization of MXML layouts, and a Properties View, which allows for the setting of inspectable component properties directly in the IDE (see Chapter 5, “Introduction to Flex Builder 3,” for details).
    Flex also enables a variety of modular compilation and deployment methods. You can pre-compile application modules or class libraries to increase compilation efficiency, code distribution, or asset management. By compiling all your fonts into one module, and all your skins into another module, for example, you cut down overall application compilation time and increase asset management efficiency. You can compile SWFs to be compiled in the main application as embedded assets, which can be easier to use than Flex modules, or you can opt to load SWF application subcomponents at runtime, decreasing the initial application filesize.
    The application footprint can also be mitigated by the use of persistent framework caching, where you can compile your application sans the Flex framework, allowing the Flash Player runtime to preload and cache the framework as a separate class library on the client. This means that after the Flex framework has been downloaded once, it is cached on the client, and your application will load much quicker for the user. See Chapter 66, “Modular Application Development,” for details.
  8. Adobe AIR — AIR brings the power of Flash and Flex to a whole other level. With AIR, AJAX applications can be deployed to the desktop, or a Flash/Flex application can be deployed to the desktop, in either the PC, Mac or Linux OSs, with access to system windowing and local file system interactivity. Or even more powerfully, both AJAX and Flash can be leveraged together in the same application, in ways that could never be done in a conventional browser environment. You can apply Flash bitmap filters and tweens directly onto an HTML object, or have a JavaScript object communicate directly with an ActionScript object without the intermediary of a communications format. This enables the development of flexible, “sometimes connected,” desktop solutions that have not previously been possible in the realm of RIAs.
  9. Seeing is believing — But don’t take our word for it. Check out some Flex and AIR applications yourself. Have a look at some of the showcased applications, and you’ll see exactly what we mean:
Web 2.0

Advertising and Brand Building with Social Networks

Social media encompass communication possible throughout all of the forms of social communities online. Social-media communities include forums, virtual worlds, social news organizations, social opinion sharing sites, and social networks. Social networks are built around site platforms that enable members to develop identity profiles, interact with other members, and participate in various site activities. Social networks are 2D environments with identity representation limited to one’s profile rather than by visually detailed avatars common to virtual worlds.

Although interactions with others can seemingly approximate synchronous real-time communication, the messaging structure is static rather than dynamic. Networks can be thought of as utility-based tools. They are an elegant but fun way to organize content, socialize, and promote one’s self-identity. Despite this, social networks have grown in popularity from their ability to provide a platform for information sharing, communication, and relationship development and maintenance. In a world where individuals may have reduced physical contact and heightened time spent interacting with electronic devices, social networks have evolved to provide an online platform for personal, intimate, informal neighborhood and office chatter. They offer a sense of ‘‘contact comfort’’ in a society where many of us spend less time with actual people than we do with machines.

Contact comfort helps to meet individual needs for affiliation and socialization. Social networks meet our need for contact comfort while also providing entertainment and information sharing.

Social networks are above all else communication hubs. While they all offer the core product of networking capabilities, networks do find ways to differentiate themselves. MySpace and FaceBook support relationship building and maintenance. YouTube offers a venue for sharing and promoting videos and related opinions. Flickr enables photo sharing and reviewing. LinkedIn provides a form of self-promotion and career networking.

There are niche sites as well focused on any number of hobbies and personal interests. Catster, for example, offers tips and information on caring for one’s feline companion with the added benefit of being able to talk with others who define themselves in part by the pets they love.

Social networks, like other online communities, are participatory, conversational, and fluid. Members produce, publish, control, critique, rank, and interact with online content. On FaceBook, for instance, the second most popular social network, members can build a profile that includes information about their education, habits, favorite movies and books, and other personality indicators. They can send and receive messages to members, ‘‘friend’’ people, and join groups and networks.

Profiles can be complemented with pictures, news feeds on member activities (e.g., Tracy just went shopping), and a variety of widgets. Widgets are small applications made up of code embedded on a Web site. FaceBook widgets enable members to virtually hug, wink, smile, and engage in a host of other behaviors. Most sites offer similar features, with messaging, profiling, and friending being the core functions of any network site. The interaction with others enhances the need to return to the site and continue the process of generating new content. The result is an online community of friends who may spend hours in the network each day.

Web 2.0

Ten Things You Should Do to Make Your Business More Web 2.0

These ten ideas are meant to be practical, relatively easy steps that could benefit almost every website, whatever its mission (including nonprofit missions). Some ideas are more relevant to organizations that sell products or services, generate advertising revenue, or generate business leads. But whatever your model is, if you want to embrace some of the cultural and technical trends of Web 2.0, these are great places to start.


eCommerce merchants are in a touchy position when it comes to making Web 2.0 innovations, because they must weigh any hoped-for gain against both the cost of implementation and the potential cost of confusing or distracting visitors from the task of finding and buying products.

Probably that’s why the Web 2.0 features that are enjoying the fastest uptake on ecommerce sites are ones with clear connections to improving the purchase conversion rate:

·         Enhanced product images

·         Product reviews and ratings

·         Personalization

·         Live customer-service chat

Some Web 2.0 innovations seem promising, but aren’t for everyone— for instance, they may demand too much time from a typically brief user session. For social-media features to be successful, you must operate in a market that stirs people’s passions enough to get them interacting with their online social circle. For mobile applications to benefit you, your offerings must be a natural fit for on-the-go customers.


Before testing, you have to identify what “best” outcomes mean to you. If you’re selling products, you’ll look for increased sales conversion rates, or average order value (or both!). If your site is ad-supported, your goal may be to increase visits, page-views, and visit duration. Social-media features might be weighed in terms of repeat visits, and traffic coming from referrals to friends. And you’ll also want to track the numbers most directly associated with your Web 2.0 initiatives: How many people are posting and reading product reviews? How many are establishing profiles, what is the average number of friend links, how many forum postings, RSS subscriptions, visits to your .mobi site, signups for your mobile text messaging program, links into your site from the blogosphere? To spot trends, you should track some metrics not just in their raw numbers, but also as a portion of the total. For example, what portion of all customers are registered users? What percentage of business leads is coming from the mobile site?


Following are the 10 important ideas –

  • Idea 1. Participate in Your Relevant Online Community
  • Idea 2. Launch Customer Ratings and Reviews
  • Idea 3. Add Value for Customer Registration
  • Idea 4. Create Valuable Content and Set it Free
  • Idea 5. Enhance Your Branding and Security Messaging
  • Idea 6. Deploy Web Analytics and A/B Testing
  • Idea 7. Segment Your Loyalty eMail Program
  • Idea 8. Push Channel Integration
  • Idea 9. Position Yourself in Mobile Media
  • Idea 10. Design Your Personal “Killer App 

Letting Go


To let go doesn’t mean to stop caring. It means I can’t do it for someone
else. To let go is not to cut myself off. It’s the realization that I
can’t control another. To let go is not to enable, but to allow learning
from natural consequences.

To let go is to admit powerlessness, which means the outcome is not
in my hands. To let go is not to try and change or blame another, I can
only change myself. To let go is not to care for, but to care about.

To let go is not to fix, but to be supportive. To let go is not to judge,
but to allow another to be a human being. To let go is not to be in the
middle arranging all the outcomes, but to allow others to affect their
own outcomes. To let go is not to be protective, it is to permit another
to face reality

To let go is not to deny, but to accept. To let go is not to nag, scold, or
argue, but to search out my own shortcomings and correct them.
To let go is not to adjust everything to my desires, but to take each
day as it comes and cherish the moment.

To let go is not to criticize and regulate anyone, but to try to become
what I dream I can be. To let go is not to regret the past, but to grow
and live for the future. To let go is to fear less and love more

~Author Unknown



One night a man had a dream. He dreamed he was walking

along the beach with the God. Across the sky flashed scenes

from his life. For each scene, he noticed two sets of footprints in

the sand: one belonging to him, and the other to the God.


When the last scene of his life flashed before him, he looked

back at the footprints in the sand. He noticed that many times

along the path of his life there was only one set of footprints.

He also noticed that it happened at the very lowest and saddest

times in his life.


This really bothered him and he questioned the God about it.

“God, you said that once I decided to follow you, you’d walk

with me all the way. But I have noticed that during the most

troublesome times in my life, there is only one set of footprints.

I don’t understand why when I needed most you would leave



The God replied, “My son, I would never leave you. During

your times of trial and suffering, when you see only one set of

footprints, it was then that I carried you.”


Author: Mary Stevenson Parker 

Pre Sales, Software Services

Proposal Building Process in Presales

Based on the size and/or complexity of the project, the study effort may vary. The typical process steps for conducting a requirement study and proposal building are outlined below. These steps are often being conducted concurrently, iteratively and, in fact, some steps may be omitted entirely, depending on the complexity and criticality of the effort. Process steps include:

  1. Determine requirements for the study
  2. Determine objectives, scope and approach, and plan the effort
  3. Conduct a current state assessment
  4. Identify potential solutions
  5. Determine the feasibility of each option
  6. Document and communicate the results of the requirement study, and obtain approval to estimate development for the recommended solution


1.       Determine Requirements for the Study: Business Problem or Opportunity

Requirement studies are used to determine the approach to solving a business problem or seize a new business opportunity, the approach is slightly different. In the case of a business problem, the Business Analyst first determines and documents the problems faced by the organization and the potential areas of study required to address the issues. The analyst then conducts root cause analysis to determine the full nature of the problem, the actual cause (or causes) of the problem, the adverse impact it is having on the business and the criticality and required timing of the resolution.

To take advantage of a new business opportunity, the analyst defines the opportunity in as much detail as possible to understand the scope and determine the nature of the study. This information is then used to determine the methodology or approach to be undertaken to complete the study. For each business problem and/or opportunity, the analyst drafts a requirements statement describing the business need for a solution.

2.       Determine the Objectives, Scope and Approach and Plan the Study Effort

To plan the requirement study effort, the Pre-Sales/Business Analyst first assembles a team of skilled resources who collaboratively perform the following tasks:

2.1   Establish specific, measurable objectives that the recommended solution must meet. These objectives provide the basis for formulating options for consideration.

2.2   Develop benefit criteria upon which alternative solutions will be evaluated in the form of quantitative measurement criteria by which to judge the success of the investment in the recommended solution.

2.3   Define scope of activities to be performed during the study.

2.4   Define deliverable(s) to be produced from the study; if it does not exist, develop a template for the final proposal document.

3.       Conduct a Current State Assessment

The study team conducts a limited amount of internal analysis when initiating the requirement study. These may include review of business objectives, strategy and vision; analysis of current business processes; and assessment of current (as-is) and future (to be) documentation. The current state assessment consists of a review of all or part of these elements, depending on the nature and scope of the study:

3.1   Strategy – Review the business vision, strategy, goals and measures.

3.2   Business Area – Describe the mission of each line of business or business unit that is a stakeholder for the area under study, and collect relevant organizational charts.

3.3   Locations – Document the physical location of each impacted business unit.

3.4   Data and Information – Identify the major types of business information required. It is also helpful to list the repositories which retain the information listed.

3.5   Infrastructure – List each of the current business technologies impacted by the initiative.

3.6   Processes – List and provide a description of each of the current business processes relevant to this project.

3.7   Competitive Arena – Describe the current business environment within which the business operates, including:

  • Market analysis, competition, products and services available
  • Emerging markets and technologies
  • Regulatory or legislative changes.


4.       Identify Potential Solutions

At this point the study team conducts external research activities to uncover general information about the industry, the competitive environment, best practices, risks and results of the actual similar approaches that have been implemented by others to solve the business problem or seize the new opportunity under consideration. Then, the team identifies as many potential options as possible to meet the objectives identified in the planning process. It is important to note that the list of possible alternatives should include the option of doing nothing.

5.       Determine the Feasibility of each Option

For each potential solution, typical analysis steps include the following:

5.1   Describe the solution option in as much detail as possible, perhaps building a high-level work breakdown structure (WBS), a hierarchical decomposition of the solution, to bring the full scope of the effort into view.

5.2   Identify methods to assess the alternative, ensuring the analysis of the economic, operational and technical feasibility of the option. Examples of methods include: prototyping to prove the highest risk portions of the solution option are technically feasible, market surveys to ensure there is a demand for the solution and it will be economically feasible, technology capability assessment to ensure the solution does not require new, unproven technology, and business staff interviews and IT staff interviews to determine operational feasibility.

5.3   Identify expected results of the assessment.

5.4   Define assessment steps.

5.5   Undertake feasibility analysis for each option.

5.6   Review results to ensure completeness.

6.       Document and Communicate the Results of the Requirement Study

Proposal document would describe the results of the requirement study for each identified alternative solution. Share the proposal document with the executive sponsor of the study, and secure approval to estimate development efforts for the recommended option.

Types of Requirement

The types of requirements that exist vary based on the problem domain and methodology that the Pre-Sales/Business Analyst works with. For the proposal, the following types of standard requirements types have been defined:

  1. Business Requirements are higher-level statements of the goals, objectives, or needs of the enterprise. This describes such things the reasons why a project is initiated, the things that the project will achieve, and the metrics which will be used to measure its success.
  2. User Requirements are statements of the needs of a particular stakeholder or class of stakeholders. This describes the needs that a given stakeholder has and how that stakeholder will interact with a solution. User Requirements serve as a bridge between Business Requirements and the various classes of solution requirements.
  3. Functional Requirements describe the behavior and information that the solution will manage. This describes capabilities the system will be able to perform in terms of behaviors or operations – a specific system action or response.
  4. Quality of Service Requirements capture conditions that do not directly relate to the behavior or functionality of the solution, but rather describe environmental conditions under which the solution must remain effective or qualities that the systems must have. This is also known as non-functional or supplementary requirements.
  5. Assumptions and constraints identify aspects of the problem domain that are not functional requirements of a solution, and will limit or impact the design of the solution.
  6. Implementation requirements describe capabilities that the solution must have in order to facilitate transition from the current state of the enterprise to the desired future state, but that will not be needed once that transition is complete.


The deliverable from this effort is the scope statement and supporting information defining the following components by inclusion or reference. This proposal documentation is input to determine the development efforts, and includes the following elements.

  1. Summary of activities the led up to the recommended solution including the business environment analysis and competitive analysis.
  2. Strategic alignment describing how the initiative fits with organizational direction or mission.
  3. Business objective(s) and high-level business requirements.
  4. Product description and scope.
  5. Project boundaries including context diagrams to provide a visual model of the scope of the project.
  6. Assumptions and constraints.
  7. Major project milestones, funding requirements and limitations.
  8. Initial project approach including resource requirements, methodology, tools, and training requirements.
  9. Current and future standards, policies, regulations to be adhered to and impacts to the initiative.
  10. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) packages available vs. customized development of the solution.
  11. Dependencies, including downstream systems, interfaces, supporting data required.